Released from the East Malling research station, England, this rootstock is the most dwarfing in commercial use in The world today, specially in Europe. It produces a tree size approximately 30%-35% of full size with most cultivars. Many subclones of M.9 exist today like T337, EMLA Series, Clones vary somewhat in the degree of dwarfing imparted to the scion. Dwarf trees on M.9 are not necessarily short-lived or shallow-rooted . Root development is proportional to tree height and spread. M.9 is not drought-tolerant. So, Do not grow trees on this stock on light-textured soils without supplemental irrigation. The wood of the M.9 stock is brittle and will break suddenly under stress. Trees on M.9, therefore, need to be supported throughout their lifetime. M.9 will not do well under poor drainage but it is tolerant of collar-rot and does well on heavier soils where drainage is adequate. M.9 is very productive. Where conditions favour vigorous tree growth, early fruiting may be essential to control tree size by keeping it under stress. The well-exposed limbs and limited structural wood of a tree on M.9 favour the production of large size and excellent coloured fruit. Trees on M.9 are very productive. This rootstock is mainly suitable for Tall spindle training system and this can also be used for vertical Axis sytem if vigorous cultivars are used. Tree on M9 can be identified easily by the bottle neck character.